To perform the planned indoor reproduction of cynomolgus monkeys, we have established developmental and reproductive engineering techniques, such as an ovarian stimulation method, the in-vitro maturation of immature oocytes in culture, microinsemination intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo culture, embryo transfer, cryopreservation of embryos and sperm, and preparation of clones from early cleavage embryos, in addition to artificial insemination and in-vitro fertilization. Applying these methods, we established cynomolgus monkey ES cells in 2000, and discovered differentiation induction methods for various functional cells (nerve cells, cardiomyocytes, and osteoblasts). On the other hand, we have established ES cells from parthenogenic embryos, embryo clone preparation by somatic cell nuclear transfer, and ES cells from these embryo clones. We have also recently succeeded in identifying cynomolgus monkeys possessing specific homozygous major histocompatibility complex to overcome immune rejection. We will establish iPS cells from these monkeys and transplant iPS-derived functional cells to establish a monkey model system of medical cell transplantation which facilitates functional assessment. We will also attempt the in-vitro induction of germ cell differentiation to develop simian reproductive engineering techniques, and investigate the possibility of applying it for fertility treatment. Furthermore, we are planning to confirm the pluripotency of iPS cells by preparing chimeras, while comparing the characteristics of ES and iPS cells.